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Sebasteion Anıtı 1

Aphrodisias was famous for its cult of Aphrodite and for its marble sculptors. In th later first century BC, it was taken under the personal protection of the Roman emperor Augustus and prospered under the imperial peace that follewed. There were excellent local quarries, and the city centre was built up in the first and second centuries AD with imposing marble complexes: theatre, temples, baths, colonnaded squares. The Sebasteion was one of these monuments.

The marble reliefs belonged to a temple complex built in the first century AD to celebrate the close relationship of Aphrodisias with the Roman emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. They have an unusual combination of Greek and Roman subjects.

The Sebasteion is situated off the regular grid, in an older quarter, east of the city centre. ?t was dedicated to Aphrodite and the emperors (?Sebasteion?, means ?Temple of the Emperors?). Construction stretched from c.AD 20 to 60, from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero. The work was paid for by two leading Aphrodisian families.
The complex consisted of an entrance gate at the west, a long processional avenue (90 X 14 m) flanked by 12m-high buildings, and a raised temple at the east end. The long avenue functioned both as a sanctuary space and as an urban thoroughfare.
The noth and south buildings that defined the avenue were three-storeyed (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) and carried marble reliefs in their upper storeys for their whole length. The reliefs were framed by the columnar architecture so that the two facades looked like closed picture-walls. Some 200 reliefs were required for the whole project, and more than 80 were recovered in the excavation.
South Building: Emperors and Heroes
The south building as sponsored by two brothers, Attalos and Diogenes, and their family. The third-storey reliefs feature emperors and gods, while those in the second storey have scenes from Greek mythology. The heroes of myth represent the past; the Roman emperors above, on the same plane as the Olympian gods, represent the present. The sequence of the reliefs can be reconstructed from their find-places in the excavation. To your left are mythological reliefs from the second storey of the south building.
?mparatorlar?n Tap?na??” anlam?na gelen Sebasteion, kent merkezinin do?usundaki eski bir bölgede ve ?zgara kent plan?n?n d???nda yer al?r. M.S. 20-60 y?llar? aras?nda Tiberius ile Nero’nun imparatorluklar? s?ras?nda yap?lm??t?r.

Kompleks, bat?daki giri? kap?s?, 12 m. yükseklikteki iki yap?yla s?n?rlanan uzun bir törensel cadde (90 X 14 m.) ve do?udaki yüksek tap?naktan olu?maktad?r. Bu cadde, hem bir kutsal alan hem de bir ana cadde olarak kente hizmet vermi?tir.

Sebasteion’un törensel caddesi boyunca kuzey ve güneyde uzanan yap?lar üçer katl?d?r. (Dor, ?on ve Korint düzeninde) ve üst katlar? mermer kabartmalarla ba?tan sona kaplanm??t?r Kabartmalar, sütunlu mimari ögelerle çerçevelenmi?, böylece yap?lar?n cepheleri adeta mermerden resim panolar? sergileyen bir duvar görünümü kazanm??t?r. Projenin tamam? için yap?lm?? olan 200 kabartma panelden 80 kadar? kaz?larda ortaya ç?kar?lm??t?r.

Güney Yap?: ?mparatorlar ve Kahramanlar

Güney yap?, Attalos ve Diogenes ad?ndaki iki karde? ve aileleri taraf?ndan yapt?r?lm??t?r. Üçüncü kattaki kabartmalar Roma ?mparatorlar?n? ve tanr?lar?, ikinci kattakiler ise Yunan mitolojisinden hikayeleri betimlemektedir. Mitolojik kahramanlar geçmi?i; Roma ?mparatorlar? ve onlarla ayn? katta yer verilen tanr?lar ise bugünü simgelemektedir. Kabartmalar?n yap? üzerindeki s?ras? kaz?lardaki buluntu yerlerinden tespit edilebilmi?tir.

Kuzey Yap?: ?mparatorluk Halklar?

Kuzey yap?, Menandros ve Eusebes ad?ndaki iki karde? ve aileleri taraf?ndan yapt?r?lm??t?r. Kuzey yap?n?n büyük bir k?sm? M.S. 4. yüzy?l?n ortalar?nda y?k?lm?? ve y?k?nt?lar ortadan kald?r?lm??t?r. Bu sebeple, güney yap?ya k?yasla az say?da kabartma günümüze ula?m??t?r. Yap?n?n ikinci kat?nda Augustus taraf?ndan ?mparatorlu?a kat?lan ethne, yani ‘halklar’ kabartmalar?; üçüncü kat?nda ise Roma ?mparatorlar? ile Gün ve Okyanus gibi zaman ve mekan?n evrensel alegorilerinin betimlemeleri yer al?r.”

Afrodisyas Sebasteion Sevgi Gönül Salonu, Yap? Kredi Yay?nlar?, May?s 2008, Sh.17-19

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